Diabetes is a condition where the human body stops producing enough insulin to meet the body’s requirements and/or the human body cells don’t respond properly to insulin. Insulin plays an important role in the functions of human body. It moves the glucose from the blood into the body’s cells. Apart from this, it also has a variety of other effects on metabolism.
Food supplies glucose to the human body, which is used by the cells as a source of energy. During the situation when insulin isn’t available or is not working properly to move glucose from blood into the cells, the glucose will stay in the blood, thereby making the blood toxic. And cells won’t function properly without sufficient glucose.
There are mainly 3 types of diabetes:
1. Type 1 diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes, which is also known as juvenile diabetes, occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. People with Type 1 diabetes must take artificial insulin every day to stay alive.
Symptoms: Increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, irritability and other mood changes, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision.
2. Type 2 diabetes:
Unlike Type 1 diabetes, although the body still produces insulin in Type 2 diabetes, however the body’s cells don’t respond to it properly. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes and links to obesity.
Symptoms: Excessive thirst, frequent or increased urination especially at night, excessive hunger, fatigue, blurry vision, injuries that won’t heal.
3. Gestational diabetes:
This type of diabetes occurs in women during pregnancy, when their body becomes less sensitive to insulin. It does not happen to all the women and it usually gets fixed after giving birth.
Symptoms: Excessive thirst, frequent urination in large amounts (unlike frequent urination in small amount during early pregnancy), fatigue, sugar in urine.
Following 2 are less common types of diabetes:
1. Monogenic diabetes:
It is a rare type of diabetes resulting from changes in a single gene and this type of diabetes is mostly genetically inherited.
Symptoms: frequent urination, rapid breathing, and dehydration.
2. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
It is a unique type of diabetes which shares some features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In Cystic-fibrosis, thick, sticky mucus that is characteristic of this disease causes scarring of the pancreas, which prevents the pancreas from producing enough amounts of insulin, thereby making the person insulin deficient.
Symptoms: Cystic fibrosis patient may not have any symptoms and they usually don’t know about it until they are tested for diabetes.
Precautions/Treatments of Diabetes:
A person with diabetes must change his/her lifestyle and embrace healthy habits as mentioned below:
1. Eat fresh and nutritious food in diet like whole grains, fruits, vegetables, proteins, low fat dairy products and nuts.
2. Avoid food items with high sugar such as high sugar desserts and fried foods.
3. Avoid too much of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption must be limited to maximum one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.
4. Maintain a routine of exercising at least 30 minutes every day. These must be cardiovascular exercises such as jogging, cycling or swimming.
5. Reducing body weight by exercising is also very helpful.
6. Medication can also be provided by your doctor to control the sugar levels in your body.